Yet Another Directory Meta Tags Generator - AddMe acne treatment HISTORICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: evolution
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Let us look at some facts!Within the last some fifty years were intervened crucially cognition about time and certain conditions of the origins of human kind,thanks to discovery of method of dating by means of a method of radio-active carbon.That event have happens in Europe before 30-40 000 years.Certain newer data purport that the appearance of human kind does happens in Africa some few ten thousands years earlier.Reconstruction of present-day DNA come into until oldness of round 150 000 years.However,that European acquaintance for now may be received forth beginning of truthful affirmation of man and beginning of actual history.That was the creature with the same physical and mental features and cultural-production's potentialities as well as present-day members of biological subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.It should be logical that also a "limitation" between history and prehistory have to be pushed on until that period.This ,however, does not happens because myths about "origin" and their lightly rationalizations still exists into a consciousness of the majority of people,including(especially) and the experts and scientific workers which took up with hereby issues in details.

In order to satisfy primordial human needs for historical foundation,this new cognizance have to be enriched with answers upon two turnkey questions:1.)Under which condition and in what way does happens this miraculous cross from biological(animal) into a cultural(human) stage of an (sub)species ?,and 2.)What is that level of historical abstraction which joins together complete course of human past,overcoming up to now the concept of division between "history" and "prehistory" as well as many other lesser divisions and distinguishing of respective elements from universal course ?

We start with belief that the man is a subject of history,and that the bounds of history are also the bounds of the reason.Into a light of newly cognition about time and some conditions of the origins of human kind , also a bounds of subjectivity and to him appurtenant rationality are getting abroad.Primary fact which get in into a eyes by equalization of man and animal and/or his hominid ancestors and contemporaries,is his biological-sexual unfitness's which he had compensated with permanently shaping his symbolical world and continuously perfections and quantitative multiplying his tools,weapons and other products.And the beginning of the development of figuratively images,as well as specialised weapons and tools fall down exactly into a time round 30-40 000 years before present.Some essential turnover happened in that time;it is not familiar to us none intrinsically mutations into a external condition of subsistence - climate,vegetable and animal world have been traversed through the phase of glaciallisation,in the interval from 75-14 000 years before present.Amongst hominids,until then has been dominated Neanderthal man(Homo sapiens neanderthalensis),parallel with new subdivision Homo sapiens sapiens. Tools and weapons have been manufacture already by earlier parents(or relatives),starting from Australopitecines before 2,5 million years,via to Homo habilis,Homo erectus,Homo heidelbergiensis to Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Those artifacts have been of "kernel" type, i.e .the tools were worked out merely rudimentary corps of a stone,and on no account his debris,what was discovery of H.sapiens sapiens. Its attainment was working out also from wood,bones,ivory.Evolution of the stature of hominids follow the trail into a direction of increasing brain measurement,and upright footstep.and there arises "Copernican reversal"in the evolution:female groin change hands upon the front side of the body,and was carrying foetus to become long-standing and child-birth weighty and painfuller,in fact unnatural.That was followed with livelong growing up and maturation and livelong nurture,cultural preparation for maturity age,.and lonesome sexual contact become complicated,it become impossible free of mediation of cultural achievements.Figuratively expressions of Paleolithic "Venuses"(specially that of Willendorf)clearly points hardship of that adaptation.(By certain African folks is tarried atavism called "steatopigia" which points deformation of woman's body due to that reversal).Thence does whole development of man evolve through the mediation of technologies and semiotics media in the purpose for compensation of a biological insufficiency.


Although did into a before-human(hence, in a right sense prehistorical)communities obtained systematic manufacturing of tools and weapons in their most rudimentary format,still is there unable to speak about social relationships.Namely,it didn't obtain medium-symbol like visual semiotic device.About symbol, like primordially expression of human memory the most was contributed by Leslie White.The contents of those visually symbol has been most oftener primary "economic" activity - hunting,with obligatory association upon sexual life on how was shown by A.Leroix-Gourhan based on cave paintings into a France,Spain,in Ural etc.

One else phenomenon has to become then dominant for complete posterior course of human history:it becomes visible regional distinction into a culture,i.e. into a technical processing stuff,into a shapes of manufactured tools and weapons and manner of symbolically(today to be told artistic)performances.It have become visible ,consequently,various semiotic systems of communication which have been easy to understand merely by limited communities of oldest people.Character of those distinctions has originated from , in a lesser measure utilitarian needs,but in a dominant measure resulted from various cultural conventions,in other words semiotic systems.It is visible that , until then unique (sub)species, begin to split inside them upon once higher,cultural plane.Into which measure have been the primary protagonists of various cultures mutually unfriendly or intimately,may we the present time just speculate.Positively is only that then have aroused first cultural difference or regional specialisations based on various visual-symbolical(semiotic)performances.We will see that intrinsically splitting of other elements of culture such as:verbal intercourse,rules to establish cognition relations,religiosity,organization of production and social institutions,arises much later.Here , we have to elaborate on ,that we under the semiotic system understand all the said,and not only linguistics and some related appearances ,on how have that exemplified structuralists.Whole cultural prosperity evolve since than across two antithetical endeavours:one,which tend to restore former(in fact fictitious)unity proper (sub)species,and the second which tend to establish differences and except other cultures from concept of genus.(Old Testament legend about expulsion first human couple from the paradise ,and about original sin, have its real base into a break with before-human biologically-sexually conformation and going upon the way of cultural prosperity).


At the present time on no account subsist consistent way of the presentation of human past.Various methods are scattered over miscellaneous scientifically disciplines which does take up with here.Thus the "prehistory" is sorted towards epochs of technological development:older, middle and upper stone period,Copper,Bronze and Iron Age,and for them come after the epochs indefinitely labelled by cultural-stylistic features:antic-classic,old-christian,earlymiddleage etc.From other side,historical science ,which does not interest for "prehistory", and temporally is limited upon 6000 years of written history,distinguish its domain upon "anilitis":old,middle and late,to whom we do not give none concept distinction.Into their progressively segment(Marxism,but also some other expostulations),the past is labelled by social-economic criterion:slave-owner,feudal,capitalistic and socialistic period.Insufficiency of that method is herein ,that it is unable to compass older periods, so neither to match that of level abstraction which may project future.Intriguing are attempts into a certain countries to do those repugnance run over with cultural-anthropological approach which does predominantly relies upon ethnological material,in other words upon development and forms of the system of affiliation relations.Except for cultural,upon act are also a social,biological,medical,psychological,philosophical,theological anthropology etc.Nobody, how much I know, didn't remember of historical anthropology that I offer hereunder this writing study out methodological to establish.

If we try to approach with unified view the totality of history,hence into a span from 30-40 000 years until today,firstly we have to repeal insufficiency of"prehistorical"archaeology ,which simplify the idea of development reducing it to the naked technology and to style differences which are non-historical.Neglecting staple specific of this oldest development,it suggests that this historic experience is surpassed,that is not ours.By uncovering inmost principles of total history,it would become clearly that history on no account begin(so like that probably nor ends)with merchandise-money social-economic relationships and class segregation of work.In fact,process of production,distribution and interchange materially goods is en active factor for all human communities.Into this early intervals, these processes indeed comprise with idea of"economy",but with wide made out idea of"semiotics".Economy would into a "historic"period set in like special case of semiotic system into which are all primary virtues exactitude measurable.Then would over these base set in culture or spiritual function,"overhead",which has earlier been indistinguishable integral part of rudimentary human values.

Technology,consequently,conditions pronounced types of human relations.and ,whereas for the "historic" period those relationship have been principally studied out and familiar,for "prehistory" that does not go for.Lonesome per itself,development from basic towards complexly formats does not intrinsically differ from the natural evolution of vivid creatures,it would be his simply continuation.That what is in them specific is that it cause formation of social relations,semiotic systems and historic epochs.This shapes is not,however,hierarchies;the later strangle or take captive older,alienate from man his inherent values,making ideological obscuring which withdraw man from his staple features.Development of the technologies gets its sense just if make possible returning of all misplaced qualities.Contemporary technology hold forth leave to chance for realization hugely step into that direction,likewise making threat from arising of totalitarian society of Orwellian type.

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